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Additional Security

Additional security is simply that the lender that you have decided to proceed with will look to take a charge over other property that you, the borrower, may own.

This other property is what is known as the additional security. It gives the lender comfort that as well as the main property that they are lending against, they also have another property to fall back on if they had to take action called the loan in or repossess, for example.

Airspace Development

Airspace development refers to the development of the space above a property or piece of land. This can include the development of structures or buildings within the airspace, such as rooftop extensions or additional floors, as well as the development of infrastructure or utilities within the airspace, such as telecommunications equipment or solar panels.

Airspace development can be a way for property owners or developers to add value to a property or to increase the density of a development without taking up additional ground-level space. It can also be a way for property owners to make use of underutilized space above their property.

However, airspace development can also present a number of challenges, such as the need to obtain planning permission and to ensure that the development does not negatively impact the existing structure or the surrounding area. It may also be necessary to consider issues such as ownership of the airspace and any existing rights or restrictions that may apply.

Amortisation

Amortisation is the process of paying off a loan in installments over a period of time. It involves making regular payments towards both the principal amount of the loan and the interest charged on the loan.

During the amortisation period, the portion of each payment that goes towards paying off the principal gradually increases, while the portion that goes towards paying the interest gradually decreases. As a result, the balance of the loan decreases over time, and the borrower becomes increasingly invested in the property or asset being financed.

The amortisation period of a loan is typically specified in the loan agreement, and it can range from a few years to several decades, depending on the terms of the loan. The amortisation schedule, which outlines the payments that the borrower is required to make over the course of the loan, is typically provided by the lender.

Amortisation is a common feature of many types of loans, including mortgages, car loans, and personal loans. Understanding the amortisation of a loan is important for borrowers, as it can help them to budget for their monthly payments and plan for the long-term financial implications of the loan.

Bridging Loan

Very simply, a bridging loan is used to purchase property or land quickly. It was originally designed for borrowers who wished to buy a property at auction and for those borrowers stuck in a chain…A bridging loan would allow the homeowner to purchase another property whilst still trying to sell their own home, effectively ‘bridging the gap’.

Below Market Value (BMV)

Below Market Value (BMV) means that the buyer is purchasing the property for a price lower than the property is currently valued at. Using the example of a property valued at £500k by a surveyor, the buyer may be buying the property for £400k.

Why you may ask?

Well it could be that the seller (vendor) is in financial difficulty and their mortgage company may be getting ready to repossess their property.

If the seller owes their lender or mortgage company £400k, they may just want a quick sale under its market value to ensure the property is sold quickly to someone with the means to buy it quickly.

This ensures they can pay the mortgage lender back and not have a repossession on their credit file which would affect their ability to ever get a mortgage again in the future.

Bridging Lender

Bridging lenders, also known as a short term lenders, offer loans over a maximum term of 24 months but more usually, over 12 or 18 months. There is greater risk involved in lending like this which is why high street banks and building societies rarely (if at all) offers these types of loans.

Building Regulations

Building regulations in the UK are a set of rules and standards that are designed to ensure that buildings are constructed safely, efficiently, and to a high standard. These regulations cover all aspects of building construction, from the foundation to the roof, and include requirements for structural integrity, fire safety, ventilation, and accessibility.

Building regulations are enforced by local authorities and are mandatory for all new building projects, as well as for any major renovations or alterations to existing buildings. The regulations are designed to protect the health and safety of occupants, as well as to ensure that buildings are energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable.

Some key areas covered by building regulations in the UK include the use of proper materials and construction techniques, adequate ventilation and heating, the installation of smoke detectors and fire suppression systems, the provision of accessible facilities for disabled persons, and compliance with local zoning and planning regulations.

Building regulations also require that all building projects have an appropriate level of oversight and inspection by qualified professionals, including architects, engineers, and building inspectors. This helps to ensure that the building is constructed in compliance with the regulations and that any potential issues are identified and addressed before the building is occupied.

In summary, building regulations in the UK are an important aspect of ensuring the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of all building projects. By adhering to these regulations, builders can ensure that their projects meet the required standards, protect occupants, and are in compliance with local laws and regulations.

Business Mortgage

Much the same as a commercial mortgage, a business mortgage is used to allow owner/occupiers, basically firms who rent their premises, to buy the building they are working in.

It also applies to anyone looking to by a property to trade from or to rent out commercially.

Cashflow Forecast

A cash flow forecast differs from a development appraisal in the sense that this isn’t a breakdown of all the associated fees and costs such as main contractor cost, electrician cost, plasterer cost, or acquisition cost, etc. The cash flow forecast is simply a monthly breakdown of what the borrower expect to have to pay out each month.

This will help the lender (in conjunction with the development appraisal) understand how the development will pan out during the term of the loan.

A cash flow forecast is a financial projection that estimates the expected inflows and outflows of cash for a business over a specific period of time. It is a tool that is used to help businesses manage their financial resources and to plan for future expenses and investments.

A cash flow forecast typically includes estimates of the following:

  • Revenues: The expected income from sales, services, or other sources of revenue.

  • Expenses: The expected costs of operating the business, including payroll, rent, utilities, and other operating expenses.

  • Capital expenditures: The expected costs of purchasing or upgrading assets, such as equipment or property.

  • Financing activities: The expected inflow or outflow of cash related to borrowing or lending, such as loan payments or the receipt of a loan.

By comparing the estimated inflows and outflows of cash, a cash flow forecast can help a business to identify potential cash shortages or surpluses and to make plans to address them. It can also be used to identify opportunities for improving cash flow, such as by increasing revenues or reducing expenses.

CIL (Community Infrastructure Levy)

A Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) is a charge that is levied on new developments in the United Kingdom. It is a tool that local authorities can use to fund infrastructure improvements needed to support the development of their area.

The CIL is collected by the local authority and is used to fund infrastructure projects such as roads, schools, and public transport. It is typically paid by the developer of a new development and is calculated based on the size and type of the development.

CIL charges are set by the local authority and are based on the infrastructure needs of the area. They are reviewed and updated on a regular basis to ensure that they reflect the current infrastructure needs of the area.

CIL charges are typically paid at the planning permission stage of a development, and they must be paid before the development can commence. The CIL is in addition to any other planning fees or charges that may be applicable to the development.

Collateral warranties

A collateral warranty creates a contract between a third party and certain contractors and professionals involved in the build. It  is there to ensure that the warrants to a third party beneficiary that it has fulfilled its obligations under its underlying building contract. Warranties can be be called upon years after a project is finished. Not all lenders insist on them and not all collateral warranties are necessary, usually only on the specialist design and build team.

Compound Interest

Compound interest is affectively interest earned on top of other interest. In normal simple interest terms, the interest is calculated on the loan amount, the net loan amount and that is all. Compound interest, is interest calculated on the net loan amount and subsequently every months interest thereafter.

Compound interest is a type of interest that is calculated on the principal amount of a loan or investment, as well as on any accumulated interest. It allows the interest earned on an investment or loan to grow over time, as the accumulated interest is added to the principal and becomes part of the base on which future interest is calculated.

For example, if you invest £100 at a 10% annual interest rate with compound interest, you would earn £10 in interest during the first year. If the interest is compounded annually, the £10 in interest would be added to the £100 principal, so that the balance of your investment would be £110. In the second year, you would earn 10% interest on the new balance of £110, which would be £11 in interest. This process continues, with the interest earned on an investment or loan increasing over time as a result of the compound interest.

Compound interest can be a powerful tool for growing wealth over time, as it allows the interest earned on an investment or loan to accumulate and grow. However, it can also work against you if you are borrowing money, as the compound interest on a loan can make it more expensive to repay over time.

Conveyancing

This is a fancy way of describing the legal process.

This is where a solicitor acting on behalf of the lender and the solicitor acting on behalf of the borrower will converse with each other until they reach a point where the loan can be completed and all the legal requirements have been taken care of.

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding a property investment involves raising money from a large number of people, usually through an online platform, to fund the purchase of a real estate property. There are several steps involved in crowdfunding a property investment:

  1. Research: Research the market and identify a property that meets your investment criteria.

  2. Create a plan: Develop a detailed plan outlining the investment opportunity, including the property, the expected returns, the risks, and the timeline.

  3. Set up a crowdfunding campaign: Set up a campaign on a crowdfunding platform, such as Crowdproperty, Fundrise, or CrowdFranchise, and create a compelling pitch to attract investors.

  4. Promote the campaign: Promote the campaign through social media, email marketing, and other channels to attract potential investors.

  5. Close the deal: Once the campaign is funded, close the deal and begin the process of purchasing the property.

It’s important to note that crowdfunding a property investment carries risks, and it’s important to carefully consider these risks before embarking on this type of investment. You should also be aware of any legal or regulatory requirements that may apply to crowdfunding a property investment in your jurisdiction.

Debenture

A debenture on a property loan is a type of security that is used to secure a loan. It is a legal document that outlines the terms and conditions of the loan, including the amount of the loan, the interest rate, and the repayment schedule.

In the context of a property loan, a debenture is a document that is used to secure the loan against the property being financed. If the borrower defaults on the loan, the lender can use the debenture as a means to recover the loan by selling the property.

Debentures are often used in commercial property financing, where the lender may require additional security to protect their investment. They can also be used in residential property financing, although they are less common in this context.

Debt Advisory

Debt advisory is a service provided by financial professionals to help companies and individuals manage and restructure their debt. This can include identifying and evaluating options for refinancing or restructuring debt, negotiating with creditors, and developing a plan for repaying debts. The goal of debt advisory is to help clients improve their financial situation and avoid default. It can also include help for distressed companies, such as bankruptcy advice, and debt restructuring.

Development appraisal

This is used by the borrower to demonstrate the costs of the project. Everything from the acquisition cost of the land and/or property all the way to the costs of materials, labour, professional costs, borrowing fees and the total GDV. This appraisal allows both the lender and the lender’s QS to understand if the deal stacks up.

Development Exit Loan

A development exit loan is a type of loan that is used to finance the completion of a development project. It is typically used when a developer has run out of funds or is unable to secure additional financing through traditional means, such as bank loans or equity investments.

A development exit loan is typically secured by the property being developed and is used to fund the remaining costs of the project, such as construction, marketing, and sales. The loan is typically repaid from the proceeds of the sale of the development, either through the sale of individual units or through the sale of the entire development.

Development exit loans can be a useful tool for developers who are facing financial challenges during the construction phase of a project. They can provide the necessary funds to complete the project and can help to minimize the risk of delays or setbacks.

Development finance

This is a type of finance where the lender will provide finance for a project in stages rather than all in one go. It provides the lender with greater security because they will only lend money when work has been completed.

Drawdown

This is the name of each staged payment and relates to Development finance. For example, a borrower may be building a house so the lender will provide finance in arrears in staged drawdowns.

This means for example that the borrower buys the land (using bridging finance) and starts work by putting drainage in and clearing the site.

The lender will seek evidence of this through a QS and when they have it confirmed, the lender will allow the borrower to ‘drawdown’ the amount they have spent doing this.

This carries on until the development is built.

Equity

This can often be described as your ‘skin in the game’. This is the amount of value in your property that is not covered by a first charge or second charge mortgage. For example, if your house is worth £500,000 and you have a mortgage of £300,000, then the equity in your property is £200,000.

Exit Fee

Payable by borrower when they redeem (pay back) their loan. Not all lenders charge this and exit fees vary from 0.5% up to 2% usually. Note: Some lenders charge this on the gross loan (the loan plus fees and interest), some lenders charge it just on the net loan and some lenders even charge it on the Gross Development Value (GDV) of the scheme. 

Exit Strategy

An exit strategy in bridging loans refers to the plan for repaying the loan once the bridging period is over. A bridging loan is a short-term loan that is used to bridge the gap between the purchase of a property and the receipt of longer-term financing, such as a mortgage. The exit strategy is the plan for repaying the bridging loan once the longer-term financing is in place.

There are several common exit strategies for bridging loans, including:

  1. Refinancing: This involves taking out a new loan to pay off the bridging loan. The new loan may be a mortgage or another type of long-term financing.

  2. Selling the property: If the property has increased in value since it was purchased, it may be possible to sell the property and use the proceeds to pay off the bridging loan.

  3. Repayment from other sources: The borrower may have other sources of funds that can be used to pay off the bridging loan, such as the sale of another asset or the receipt of an inheritance.

It is important for borrowers to carefully consider their exit strategy before taking out a bridging loan, as the high interest rates charged on these loans can make them expensive to repay over the long term.

Facility Document

A loan facility document for a bridging loan in the UK is a legally binding agreement that outlines the terms and conditions of the bridging loan. It is typically provided by the lender and sets out the terms of the loan, including the amount of the loan, the interest rate, the repayment schedule, and any fees or charges that may apply.

A bridging loan is a short-term loan that is used to bridge the gap between the purchase of a property and the receipt of longer-term financing, such as a mortgage. They are often used by developers or investors to purchase a property quickly, before they have secured the necessary financing to complete the purchase.

Bridging loans are typically secured against the property being purchased, and they can be an expensive form of financing due to the high interest rates that are often charged. As a result, it is important for borrowers to carefully review the loan facility document before agreeing to the loan and to understand the full terms and conditions of the loan.

First Charge Loan

A First Charge Loan is where the lender will place a charge on the property where no other charges exist. For example, on a residential mortgage, unless you have taken a loan out against the property, then a normal first charge residential mortgage against the home you are looking to live in (or do you live in), will be on a first charge basis.

Fixed JCT Contract

A fixed JCT contract (also known as a JCT Standard Building Contract with Quantities) is a standard form of contract that is used in the construction industry in the United Kingdom. It is published by the Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) and is used for projects where the works and the prices are fixed in advance.

The fixed JCT contract is typically used for smaller construction projects, where the scope of work and the prices for the work are agreed upon in advance and are not subject to change. It includes a schedule of rates for different types of work and materials, and it provides a fixed price for the project based on the estimated quantities of work and materials.

The fixed JCT contract includes detailed provisions for the management of the project, including provisions for variations, defects liability, and payment. It also includes a set of standard conditions of contract, which outline the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract.

GDV (Gross Development Value)

Gross Development Value (GDV) is the final finished value of the property you have bought, refurbished or built. This is what it will sell for on the open market

Gross Loan

A gross loan is the net loan plus all the other fees interest and charges added to the net loan. All of these combined give you the gross loan figure.

Ground Up

This is when a property or properties are being built from scratch, hence the term ‘Ground up’. For example, a borrower may purchase a piece of land with or without planning and once planning is in place they will seek finance to build a property on that land.

That means doing literally everything from the very start, installing drains, building roads and pathways, planting trees, electricity cables and other utilities.

It’s not for the fainthearted and should only be for experienced developers.

Heads of Terms

These are simply ‘Terms’. Basically, what the lender will send to a broker or borrower that explains how much they can offer, over what term and at what rates and fees.

Heads of terms (also known as heads of agreement or term sheet) is a document that outlines the key terms and conditions of a bridging or development finance agreement. It is typically used as a starting point for negotiating the full terms of the agreement and can help to clarify the key issues that need to be addressed before the final agreement is reached.

Heads of terms for bridging and development finance may include details such as:

  • The amount of the loan
  • The interest rate
  • The loan term
  • The purpose of the loan (e.g., to fund the construction of a development)
  • The security that is being offered to the lender (e.g., a mortgage on the property being developed)
  • Any fees or charges that may apply
  • The repayment schedule
  • Any covenants or conditions that must be met by the borrower

Heads of terms are typically non-binding, which means that they do not create a legally enforceable agreement. However, they can provide a useful framework for negotiating the full terms of the loan and can help to ensure that both parties are clear on the key issues that need to be addressed.

HMO

Unlike a typical apartment block, a HMO is a building converted into a number of rooms (hence multiple occupation) with shared facilities. Typically, 4-6 bedrooms in an old house with a shared kitchen and bathroom.

The occupiers will pay one fee each month inclusive of bills and usually, they will be much cheaper than renting a traditional apartment. Of course, the downside is the shared facilities but a lot of modern HMO’s are now incorporating en-suites and small kitchen areas in each room which allows them to charge more.

Interest Roll Up

This is where the interest is added up and added on to the loan. So during a typical 12 month bridging loan, the borrower pays no interest and no capital back during this term. This means that the interest is rolled up and paid back at the end of the loan term.

Land with planning

Land earmarked for residential, commercial or industrial development that has been approved by the local council planning department. Land with full planning (outline planning and positive pre-apps are not acceptable) is usually the only option that lenders will consider lending on, not land without planning permission. 

Legal undertaking

The borrowers solicitor agrees to pay the lenders solicitor by putting their own solicitor in funds. This means that is the loan doesn’t proceed for any reason, the lenders solicitor can still be paid for work they have already done.

A legal undertaking is a promise or commitment that is made in a legal context and is binding in law. It is a formal promise to do (or not do) something, and it can be used to enforce compliance with certain terms or conditions.

Legal undertakings are often used in a variety of legal contexts, including contract law, employment law, and environmental law. They can be given by individuals, businesses, or other organizations, and they can be enforced by the courts if they are not followed.

Some examples of legal undertakings include:

  • A promise by a contractor to complete a project by a certain date
  • An agreement by an employee to not disclose confidential information
  • A commitment by a company to reduce its carbon emissions

Legal undertakings can be given orally or in writing, and they can be made in a variety of legal documents, such as contracts, agreements, or deeds. It is important for individuals and organisations to carefully consider their legal undertakings and to ensure that they are able to fulfill their commitments before making them.

LTGDV (Loan to GDV)

This is the loan amount, in percentage terms, when calculated against the end value of the property, otherwise known as the GDV. For example, if you borrowed £250,000 in total and the GDV was £550,000, the LTGDV would be 45% LTGDV.

Loan to Value (LTV)

Dead simple. The Loan To Value (LTV) is simply the loan you require divided by the valuation of the property, which gives you the loan to value percentage. This LTV percentage is how lenders determine how much they can lend to a borrower.

Main Contractor

The main contractor is the building firm who will be undertaking the majority of the building/construction work. They can also manage the other trades such as electrician, plumber, joiner, etc.

Mezzanine Finance

We will use an example to explain this as that is the easiest way. If a lender lends to a borrower and the loan to value is 70% but the borrower only has 20% of their own cash they can put in, then they can apply for mezzanine finance of up to 10% to give them the extra to make up the shortfall. So in this example, the first charge lender will offer 70% of the property, the mezzanine finance lender will lend an additional 10% of the profit, thereby allowing the borrower to borrow up to 80% of the property value and only having to find 20% of their own funds. But be warned, mezzanine finance can work out to be quite expensive.

Non Status Lending

A non-status lender means that the lender does not really care about your credit status. This is because non status mortgage lenders base their lending decision solely against the asset. Traditionally, bridging loans were designed for this purpose.

OMV

Open Market Value (OMV) is the value of the property or land if it was sold in it’s current condition on the ‘open market’, ie. on portals like RightMove and Zoopla.

Permitted Development (PD)

Usually, planning permission can take many months to go through but with permitted development, the approval takes only days, sometimes it is within 24 hours. Every county council will have areas that have been granted permitted development rights and usually (but not always) these are city centre commercial buildings that can be converted into residential units.

Most councils don’t want to see empty office blocks because 1. It doesn’t look good for them and 2. They will generate extra, much needed council tax if they can be turned into hundreds of apartments.

Personal Guarantee

Also known as a PG. This is often used in commercial lending as is a way for the lender to recover their losses if a borrower fails to repay them. Because a lot of bridging loans and development finance are bought through SPVs or Limited Companies, it means that the lender would have no recourse to recover their money in case of default.

A PG however means that all of that individual borrower’s assets are at risk, including their main residential home so that if a lender has to ‘call a loan in’, then they would be able to go after that director/shareholders assets and take possession of them to get their money back.

Whilst the borrower won’t like giving a Personal Guarantee, lenders almost always insist on them.

Phased drawdown

On a development finance loan, this is when a borrower completes some work on their development and then goes back to the lender for them to release funds to re-imburse the borrower for the work they have completed. The lender will only release the money when their own QS visits, produces a report and agrees that the the client has indeed spent the money they are asking to draw. These ‘phased drawdowns’ are always done in arrears.

Planning Permission

Planning permission is a legal requirement in the UK that must be obtained from the local planning authority before beginning any new construction or development project. Planning permission is a process that is designed to ensure that new building projects and other developments are appropriate for the surrounding area and meet certain standards in terms of design, use, and impact on the local environment.

The process of obtaining planning permission involves submitting a detailed application to the local planning authority, which includes plans and specifications for the proposed development. The application is then subject to a public consultation period, during which members of the public can provide feedback and objections to the proposed development.

The local planning authority will review the application and consider factors such as the impact on the local environment, the potential impact on neighbouring properties, and the overall suitability of the proposed development for the area. They may also consult with other relevant authorities, such as the Environment Agency or Highways Agency, to ensure that the proposed development is in compliance with relevant regulations.

If planning permission is granted, it may be subject to certain conditions or restrictions that must be adhered to during the construction process. If planning permission is denied, the applicant has the right to appeal the decision to the Planning Inspectorate.

In summary, planning permission is a crucial aspect of the construction and development process in the UK. By ensuring that new developments are appropriate for the local environment and meet certain standards, planning permission helps to protect the environment and maintain the quality of life for local residents.

Quantity Surveyor (QS)

A QS is there to give both the borrower and the lender comfort that the build is being done correctly and on time. Furthermore, their job is to report back to the lender that the work has been done satisfactorily, will be completed on time and that the money being set aside for the build, is sufficient to finish it. They are also fundamental to the drawdown process and will produce monitoring reports for the lender each time they visit.

Refurbishment Loan

A loan to refurbish a property that may not be in the best condition. This loan may be given to the borrower in a lump sum or it may be phased over the period of the refurbishment.

Second Charge Loan

A second charge loan is simply another loan on your property that is in addition to your main residential 1st charge mortgage. They are often used to consolidate debts or to pay for improvements to the property.

Security

Simply the property or land that the loan is ‘secured’ on.

Section 106

A Section 106 Agreement, also known as a S106 Agreement, is a legally binding agreement that is entered into between a local planning authority (LPA) and a developer in the United Kingdom. It is a tool that can be used to ensure that the impacts of a development are mitigated and that the local community benefits from the development.

Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 allows LPAs to enter into agreements with developers to secure planning obligations in relation to a development. These obligations can include measures to mitigate the impacts of the development, such as providing affordable housing, public open space, or infrastructure improvements.

Section 106 Agreements are typically used in conjunction with planning permissions for larger developments, and they are used to ensure that the development meets the needs of the local community and complies with planning policies. They can be used to address a wide range of issues, including environmental impacts, social and economic impacts, and the provision of community facilities.

Short Term Lending or Lenders

This time is used to describe lenders who only offer lending products over a shorter term than more traditional residential 1st charge lenders. Most short term lenders offer loans or mortgages over a maximum of 24 months hence why it is called short term lending.

Specialist Lending

A specialist lender is a financial institution that provides loans or financing to a specific group of borrowers or for a specific type of loan. They may specialise in lending to a particular sector or industry, such as real estate or small businesses, or they may specialise in a particular type of financing, such as short-term loans or bridging loans.

Specialist lenders may offer a range of financial products and services, such as term loans, lines of credit, equipment financing, and working capital loans. They may also provide specialised financing solutions, such as mezzanine financing or development finance, to meet the specific needs of their target market.

Specialist lenders may be able to offer more tailored financing solutions and may be more flexible in their lending criteria than traditional banks or other financial institutions. However, they may also charge higher interest rates or fees due to the higher risk associated with lending to a specific sector or type of borrower.

SPV (special purpose vehicle)

This is a limited company which has been set up with one specific purpose; To buy a property.

There will be no other businesses or other trading done from this, it will simply be the property or land that you are buying on this one particular transaction.

It helps to keep things simple and it also means that you will still have limited liability when and if there is a problem.

Step in Rights

Lender step-in rights refer to the rights of a lender to take action to protect their investment if the borrower is unable to fulfill their obligations under a loan agreement. These rights are typically included in the loan agreement and allow the lender to take steps to preserve the value of the collateral securing the loan, such as by taking possession of the property or asset being financed.

Lender step-in rights are typically triggered when the borrower defaults on the loan, which may occur if the borrower fails to make the required payments, violates a covenant in the loan agreement, or otherwise breaches the terms of the loan.

The specific rights and actions available to the lender will depend on the terms of the loan agreement and may include the right to:

  • Take possession of the security
  • Sell the security
  • Appoint a receiver to manage the security
  • Exercise any other rights or remedies available under the loan agreement or under law

It is important for borrowers to understand the lender step-in rights that are applicable to their loan and to be aware of the actions that the lender may be able to take if they default on the loan.

Vacant Possession

VP (vacant possession)

Using the example of a pub, the buyer may wish to purchase the pub, knock it down and turn the pub and car park into houses.

The (surveyor) valuer would value the property in three different ways:

1. OMV (open market valuation) The value of the pub now with all of its food and drink income being accounted for – a going concern if you like.

2. 90 day valuation. The value of the pub if it had to be sold quickly – sometimes known as a fire sale. There is usually a difference of 20% between the value of an asset now and the value of it if it was to be sold quickly.

3. VP. his is where the asset is valued as if there was no trading business there. No food and drink income just purely the value of the property and its land. Effectively, the bricks and mortar and land as if it was a bare shell.